Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Analysis of Calabar and its Environs, Cross River State, Nigeria
Yaro, Margaret A; UkpaliObongha, Okon, Asuquo E; Itam, Ekpenyong B

Abstract
Urban agricultural system at the fringes has played significant role in food supply for urban areas. However, with the increasing human population due to rural urban drift with concomitant increase in infrastructures, there is tradeoff of agricultural land for other developments. Thus, this research is aimed at investigating the impact of urban expansion on agricultural land. The study adopts a survey method and comparative assessment to examine the effect of other human activities on urban agricultural system before 2013 and beyond 2013. One hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were administered to sample population to capture information such as the impact of urban expansion on agriculture, size of farms, farming systems, farm seasons and crops produced in Calabar. The findings indicate that there is decrease in agricultural land in the fringes as Calabar Urban expansion persists and increases. Before 2013, more people (36.7% of the farming population) had 3-4 plots of 150x50 feet as against 45.3% owning 1-2 plots. Most of these agricultural lands at the fringes were originally meant for farming and have been converted to building housing estates, roads, leisure resort areas (Tinapa) and schools by government and individuals. This implies that urban expansion has negatively impacted on agricultural land, thereby, reducing food productivity and rendering the farmers unemployed. This paper, however, recommends among others a policy framework towards land use plan for urban agriculture at the periphery.

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