September 11, 2001 and Change in Pakistan’s Foreign Policy
Jamal Shah, Nasir Riaz

Diplomacy accepts only the national interests of a nation as supreme and a permanent element in international relations. The modus operandi and means to realize these national interests keep changing according to the demands of national and international situation, the perception of national leaders, the long and short term goals and the nature of the crisis faced by a country. Again, the realization of these interests depends upon the maturity, strength and quality of public opinion and leadership. In this regard, national interests are to be envisioned and determined after profound thinking and national debate and discretion is to be used to safeguard them. They are determined in the existing environment with accurately predicting the future. 9/11, 2001 was the event which shook the tectonic plates of world politics and profoundly affected the foreign policies of many states. Keeping in view this scenario the aim of the present study is to answer the question “what were the impacts of 9/11 on Pakistan’s internal and external policies especially toward Afghanistan and Kashmir?”

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