Role of Head Teachers in Managing the Forces Emanating from the External World of Schools in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan
Dr. Mola Dad Shafa

This paper reviews the nature and intensity of some external forces that shape and re-shape headteachers’ school improvement efforts in the mountainous and rural Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan. The external forces emanating from the outside world of the schools are categorized under three themes: divisions within the school community, influences of the district office, and issues of communication with parents. The divisions within the school community were clear and deep. The major divisions included the uneven socioeconomic levels, the various tribal systems, the sense of local and non-locals, and the different religious denominations. The challenges related to the District Office were: monetary challenges, monitoring and supervision, and a surfeit of assignments given to schools. The issues of communication with parents were: parents’ lack of interest in school improvement issues and the low socioeconomic background of parents. The paper also examines headteachers’ roles in addressing these ongoing school improvement challenges.

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