The use of Graphic Calculator in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: Effects on Performance and Metacognitive Awareness
Nor’ain Mohd. Tajudin, Rohani Ahmad Tarmizi, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Mohd. Majid Konting

Abstract
A quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group posttest only design was conducted to investigate the effects of using graphic calculators in mathematics teaching and learning on Form Four (11th grade level) Malaysian secondary school students’ performance and their metacognitive awareness The experiment was carried out for six weeks incorporating comparison on two levels of mathematics ability (low and average) and two types of instructional strategy (graphic calculator strategy and conventional instruction strategy). The sample for this study was randomly in one school in Malacca. There were four groups involved such that the average mathematics ability of experimental and control groups consisted of 17 and 18 students respectively whereas the low mathematics ability of experimental and control groups consisted of 20 and 22 students respectively. The experimental group underwent learning using graphic calculator strategy while the control group underwent learning using conventional instruction strategy. There were three instruments used in this study namely, the Straight Lines Achievement Test, the Paas Mental Effort Rating Scale and the Metacognitive Awareness Survey. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and planned comparison test. The findings of the study indicated that graphic calculator instruction enhanced students’ performance and induced better levels of their metacognitive awareness with less mental effort invested during learning and test phases and hence increased 3-dimensional instructional efficiency index in learning of Straight Lines topic for both groups of low and average mathematics ability. In addition, as mathematics ability increased, the amount of mental effort invested during learning and test phases of the graphic calculator group decreased. The average mathematics ability group greatly benefited from the graphic calculator instruction as it led to decrease doubled amount of mental effort than the low mathematics ability group. Findings from this study provide evidence of pedagogical impact of the use of graphic calculator as a tool in teaching and learning of mathematics in Malaysia.

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