Fish and Cardiometabolic Concerns: A Link through Lead and Mercury
Mousa Numan Ahmad, PhD; Najwa K. Suleiman, MSc

Abstract
Conditions characterizing the cardio metabolic syndrome (CMS) including obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, and hypertension are considered significant health problems worldwide. CMS is the product of the interplay between genetics and environment of which dietary factors are the main effectors. Fish consumption is recommended due to its good nutritional value especially omega-3 fats which have profound cardio protective effects. Heavy metals particularly lead and mercury contained in fish makes it difficult to clearly establish its health role. Henceforth, these metals are identified as potential risk factors for CMS development; though the mechanisms of their pathogenesis remain poorly understood. This article evaluates current literature linking among fish, lead, mercury, and pathogenesis of CMS components. In contrast to humans, evidence from animals supports the presence of associations between fish, lead and mercury and the emergence of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Randomized controlled trials that investigate the effects of fish, lead and mercury on the key CMS biomarkers are suggested.

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