The Rise of Islamophobia in the United States: Patterns, Perpetrators, and Reactions
Dr. Navid Ghani

Abstract
This study examines the rise of Islamophobia directed against Muslims in contemporary America society. Why do some people carry out acts of violence against religious minorities and others associated with them? What are the motivations of the perpetrators? And how is their violent behavior influenced by responses from their social environment including media reports and law enforcement agencies? This study looks at a complex set of phenomenon, which has been, described alternatively as racist, violent, anti-immigration and Islamophobic. The study applies mainly qualitative methods such as interviews, secondary literature, direct observations of events, media accounts, and documents from law enforcement agencies such as Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Department of Justice. A close study of relevant events and incidents uncovers a variety of organized and unorganized perpetrators, mixed motives, and different types of responses. No single description can explain the hatred against one religious minority group. Neither can one can explain ‘why Islamophobia is becoming widespread and entrenched?’ or why do some people believe in the ideology of hatred and turn violent against others who are different from them?

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